Timeline of Late Medieval England (1066-1668)

As part of the Visual Timeline series

Norman conquest, Tudors, Stuarts, Glorious Revolution

1095: First Crusade (1095-1099); Crusaders capture and massacre Jerusalem

1147: Second Crusade (1147-1150) to recapture Edessa is failure for Christians

1189: Third Crusade (1189-1192) fails to re-take Jerusalem but captured Cyprus, Acre and Jaffa; results in treaty; under Richard I

1204: Fourth Crusade captures and plunders Byzantine Constantinople

1295: Scotland-France forms Auld Alliance against English

1337: Hundred Years War (1337-1453) against England; 4 wars over 116 years (Edwardian War 1337-1360, Carolin War 1369-1389, Lancastrian War 1415-1420, Second Lancastrian War 1420-1453)

1346: English (under Edward III) long bows devastates French (under Philip VI) at Battle of Crecy (part of Hundred Years War); 3x fire rate of crossbow and deadly impact at 300m

Battle of Crecy. Source

1347: Black Death (Bubonic Plague) kills 1/3 of Europe (1347-1351)

1415: English victory over French at Battle of Agincourt (Hundred Years War) (immortalized in Shakespeare’s Life of Henry the Fifth)

1429: Teenage heroine St Joan of Arc (“Maid of Orleans”) relieves Siege of Orleans; turning point in Hundred Years War

1431: Joan of Arc burned by English at Rouen

– Hundred Years War (1337-1453) ends with French victory; English driven out of most of France by House of Valois; England only holds onto Calais
– Ottomans capture Constantinople.

Territorial shifts throughout Hundred Years War. Source

1455: Gutenburg press invented

– Columbus arrives in Americas
– Castile and Aragon form Spain 

1498: Portuguese (Vasco-de-Gamma) find sea route to India

1517: Protestant Reformation; Martin Luther sends 95 Theses to Archbishop of Mainz

1553: Queen Mary ascends English throne (r.1553-1558); reverts back to Catholicism; persecutes Protestants hence ‘bloody Mary’

1559: Elizabeth ascends throne (r. 1559-1603); returns England to Protestantism; 50 year golden era

1562: French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Protestants (1562-1598); spread of Calvanism angers powerful Catholic Guise family; ends in tolerance for Protestant Huguenots (Edict of Nantes 1598)

1566: Dutch begin rebellion against Spanish rule; part of Eight Years War (1566-1609) 

1571: Holy League Catholic coalition defeats Ottomans at Battle of Lepanto in Greece

1588: England repels Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada. Source

1598: Edict of Nantes; French toleration of Protestant Huguenots

1618: Thirty Years War (1618-1648) begins; primarily Catholic vs Protestants, France vs England; Habsburgs fails to restore Catholic dominance against Protestant princes

1648: Thirty Years War (1618-1648) ends with Peace of Westphalia; religious power struggle fought mainly on German soil

1685: Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes 1598, ending Protestant (Huguenots) toleration; begins expulsion

1688: Glorious Revolution

1701: War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714); death of Carlos II, childless Habsburg; France and Austrian Habsburg claim throne; English and Dutch support Austrians; French and Spanish power erode while Britain rises

1704: England-Holland-Austrian Habsburg defeat France-Bavaria at Battle of Blenheim (War of Spanish Succession)

1713: First Peace of Utrecht (end War of Spanish Succession); establishes Philip V as King of Spain; halts French ambitions and marks rise of Great Britain

1718: War of Quadruple Alliance (1718-1720); Britain-France-Austria-Dutch defeat Spain as they attempt to recover losses from 1713 Peace of Utrecht

1721: Russia becomes new Baltic Power after defeating Sweden in Great Northern War (1700-1721)

1733: War of Polish Succession (1733-1735); England-Spain-Dutch-HolyRomanEmpire coalition to halt French expansionism; Poland falls under dominion of Austria and Russia

– (May) Frederick II the Great ascends Prussian throne (r. 1740-1786)
– (Dec) War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748); Prussia (with France, Spain) invades Austria (with Britain, Dutch, Russia)

1756: Seven Years War (Britain-Prussia-Portugal Hanover vs France-Austria-Russia-Spain-Saxony-Sweden); first truly global war

1763: Anglo-Prussian victory over France-Habsburg-Saxony-Russia-Spanish in Seven Years War (1756-1763);  triggered by unresolved Austrian succession, but ultimately about Britain-France vying for global dominance. France now in financial ruin.

Map of Theaters and Bellingerents of the Seven Years War. Source

1769: Watts patents more efficient steam engine with separate condenser (Britain)

1775: Battles of Lexington and Concord begins American Independence War / Revolution.

1776: US Declaration of Independence

1777: American victory over British at Battle of Saratoga; France now joins war against Britain

1781: French navy under Rochambeau plays critical role in American victory at Battle of Yorktown, last major battle of American Independence War.

1783: Britain recognizes US at Treaty of Paris

1789: French Revolution starts as Bastille prison is stormed

1792: France defeats Prussia-Austria invasion; Napoleonic Wars begin (War of First Coalition 1792-1797); French victory at Battle of Valmy

1793: French King Louix XVI executed; horrifies European monarchs (Catherine of Russia turns back on liberal idealism of her youth); royalist counter-revolutionary rebellion begins in Vendee; Spain Holland Britain join First Coalition against France

1798: British defeat French navy at Battle of Nile

– Napoleon becomes First Consul (dictator) of France after coup; France becomes Consulate (1799-1804)

– (Jun) Napoleon crosses the Alps and defeats Austrians at Battle of Marengo; ends War of Second Coalition (Austria, Russia, Britain)
– Neutral European powers inc Russia forms Second League of Armed Neutrality, to embargo British back for interfering with trade (British embargo on France); Britain disbands League after Battle of Copenhagen 1801

– After losing Haiti amidst its revolution, Napoleon fears losing Louisiana to British, and so sells it the US for $15m.
– War of Third Coalition against France (1803-1806) begins

– Napoleon crowns himself emperor; France becomes Empire (1804-1814)

– (Oct) Britain, under Nelson, defeats Franco-Spanish invasion fleet at Battle of Trafalgar
– (Oct) France defeats Austria at Battle of Ulm
– (Dec) France defeats Russia-Austria at Battle of Austerlitz; Napoleon’s greatest victory

Admiral Lord Nelson dies in Battle of Trafalgar. Source

– France rules over most of Germany; Francis II abolishes Holy Roman Empire and becomes emperor of Austria; France recognizes Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine
– Prussia declares war on France beginning War of Fourth Coalition (1806-1807)
– France sets up Continental System to blockade Britain

– French victory at Battle of Eylau and Battle of Friedland
– (Jul) Napoleon France-Alexander I Russia alliance at Treaties of Tilsit
– Napoleon France blockades Britain (Milan Decree); further enforcing Berlin Decree 1806; continental Europe suffers as it can’t trade with Britain
– (Sep) Britain retaliates blockade by attacking Denmark at Second Battle of Copenhagen
– (Nov) Napoleon invades Portugal for trading with Britain, going against continental blockade

– Peninsular War; Spain-Portugal-UK repel Napoleonic French invasion of Iberian Peninsula (1808-1814); Dos de Mayo Uprising aka Battle of Madrid; guerrilla war keeps hundreds of thousands of French and resources bogged down for years
– (Aug) British defeat French at Battle of Vimeiro (Peninsular War)

– Ottomans allied with Napoleon France repel British attack and win Anglo-Turkish War 1807-1809.
– (Apr-Oct) War of the Fifth Coalition; France defeats Austria again
– (May) Battle of Aspern-Essling one of bloodiest Napoleon battles to date, and one his first major defeats
– (Jul) Napoleon victory at Battle of Wagram; but costly victory

– (Jun-Dec) Napoleon invades Russia; 650k men largest army ever assembled
– (Sep) Russians burn Moscow for scorched earth strategy; French victory at Battle of Borodino; but ends up retreating in winter; 1m casualties
– (Jul) British-Portuguese-Spanish victory over France at Battle of Salamanca (under Wellington command) (Peninsular War)

– War of the Sixth Coalition (1813-1814); coalition armies had been reforming and UK ramps up financial aid
– (Jun) Battle of Vitoria; decisive battle in Peninsula War; breaking Napoleon’s power in Spain
– (Oct) Prussia, Russia, Britain defeats France at Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in European history (0.5m soldiers involved); two major battles in May, climax third in Oct; Napoleon federation of Rhine dissolved

Battle of Leipzig: largest battle in European history before WW1. Source

1814: Allies capture Paris, Napoleon exiled to Elba island

– (Mar-Jul) Napoleon returns and engage in Hundred Days War (War of Seventh Coalition) against Allies
– (Jun) Britain-Prussia defeats Napoleon at Battle of Waterloo; under Duke of Wellington; Napoleon exiled to St Helena; monarchy re-established in France
– Congress of Vienna: Prussia regains territory lost to France and new territory in Germany; Poland mostly goes to Russia.

Napoleon finally defeated for good at Battle of Waterloo. Source

1827: Ottoman-Egyptian fleet re-captures parts of Greece; British, French, Russians send navy and sink Ottoman main fleet at Battle of Navarino, supporting Greek Independence War against Ottomans (1821-1832)

– French July Revolution; Louis Philippe ousts his cousin Charles X; France becomes Constitutional Monarchy (1830-1848)
– Belgian Revolution (1830-1839); revolting Dutch role; Belgium and Luxembourg created out of post-Napoleonic Netherlands

– First Reforms Act 1832 passed in UK (1832, 1867 1884); removing some inequalities in electorate representation

1837: Queen Victoria ascends (r.1837-1901)

1845: Great Famine in Ireland (1845-1851); aka potato famine; 1m deaths, 25% population decline from deaths and emigration

– Liberal and nationalist European Revolutions (1846-1848); 50 nations

1853: Crimean War (1853-1856); Britain and France helps Ottomans halt Russian advance; major European war of 19th century; Britain and France secures remains of declining Ottoman empire rather than giving it to Russians

Crimean War was the first photographed and telegraphed war, making news of reality of war more accessible to public . 5th Dragoon Regiment of the British army. Source

1858: First Trans-Atlantic telegraph cable

1862: US president Lincoln announces Emancipation Proclamation; deterring European intervention in American Civil War (1860-1865)

1869: Suez Canal opens

1871: Prussia wins Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871); Bismarck portrays France as aggressor, southern German states move towards unification; Prussia king Wilhelm I is proclaimed emperor

1878: Alarmed by rising Russian influence in Balkans (after supporting Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania gain independence from Ottomans), Britain and Austria-Hungary force Russians to sign treaty limiting their military power

1884: Europeans divide Africa at Congress of Berlin; scramble for Africa; Belgium Congo; Germany Tanzania; Britain Botswana; France Central Africa and northern Madagascar

Berlin Conference 1884 is epitome of global European colonialism. Source
Today’s Francophone Africa is legacy of Berlin Conference 1884; ‘Scramble for Africa’. Source

1904: Britain and France form Entente Cordiale alliance

1907: France-Britain-Russia form Triple Entente alliance

1913: Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria) liberates from Ottoman rule in First Balkan War (Oct1912 – Jul1913).

– (Jun 28th) Austrian archduke Ferdinand assassinated in Serbia
– (Jul 28th) Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (start WW1)
– (Jul 31st) Russia mobilizes to aid Serbia
– (Aug 1st) Germany mobilizes to aid Austria-Hungary
– (Aug 4th) Germany invades Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany
– (Aug 12th) British expeditionary force lands in France
– (Aug 28th) British win first battle at sea, sinking 3 German cruisers at Battle of Heligoland Bight, and impose naval blockade on Germany
– (Sep 5th) First submarine warfare, Germans sink British cruiser
– (Sep 5-12) France repels German attack on Paris at First Battle of the Marne
– (Oct) Allies repel Germans at Battle of Ypres
– (Dec 16th) Germans raid British coast
– (Dec 20th) French launch first major offensive against Germany, small gains at big cost
– (Dec 25th) Xmas truce in Western front trenches

– (Aug 15-24th) Austria-Hungary unsuccessful in Serbia invasion, Battle of Cer
– (Aug 24-30) Germans repel Russian offensive into east Prussia at Battle of Tannenberg
– (Sep 7-14th) Germans push Russians further back, Battle of Masurian Lakes
– (Oct 29th) Ottoman joins Central Powers to fight against Russia
– (Nov) Germans attack Warsaw, Battle of Lodz
– (Dec 2nd) Austria-Hungary troops capture Belgrade, but Serbs counter and push back again



– (Nov) Lebanon gains independence from France

– (1-17th Jan) Germans withdraw from Ardennes; (16th Jan) US 1st and 3rd Armies link up after month-long separation during Battle of the Bulge; (13-14th Feb) Allied bombings destroy Dresden in firestorm (22k killed) (7th Mar) Allies capture Cologne and establish bridge across Rhine; (12th Apr) Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps; (18th Apr) Germans in Ruhr surrender to Allies

(Jan 30th) German ship Wilhelm Gustloff sunk by Soviet submarine; killing 9k, making it greatest maritime disaster in history

(17th Jan) Soviets capture Warsaw, Poland; (Jan 27) Soviets liberate Auschwitz; (6th Mar) last German offensive of war to defend oil fields in Hungary; (30th Mar) Soviets capture Danzig; (16th Apr) Soviets begin attack on Berlin; (21st Apr) Soviets reach Berlin

– (Feb 4-11) FDR Churchill Stalin discuss post-war Europe at Yalta Conference; (Jul 17 – Aug 2) US Britain USSR settle post-war Europe borders at Potsdam Conference

(1st Apr) Allied offensive in northern Italy; (29th Apr) Mussolini killed by Italian partisans; Allies capture Venice.

(Apr 30th) Hitler commits suicide as Red Army enters Berlin; (2nd May) Germans in Italy surrender; (7th May) German unconditional surrender (under Alfred Jodl); (8th May) Victory in Europe Day; (5th Jun) Allies divide Germany and Berlin.

(26th Jul) Atlee succeeds Churchill as Britain PM.

See also:

Visual Timeline Series